An Introduction To The Critical Study And Knowledge Of The Holy Scriptures Volume 1 – Thomas Hartwell Horne B.D.

An Introduction To The Critical Study And Knowledge Of The Holy Scriptures Volume 1 PDF

This is Volume 1 of An Introduction To The Critical Study And Knowledge Of The Holy Scriptures Volume 1 – Thomas Hartwell Horne B.D. (1854).

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Index of the book (please forgive any unreadable bits – this index is computer generated from ancient texts):

ON THE GENUINENESS, AUTHENTICITY, INSPIRATION,
ETC. OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES.
Chapter I. On the Possibility, Probability, and
Necessity ofa Divine Revelation, page
I. Revelation defined 15
II. Possibility of a Revelation ib.
III. Probability of such Revelation shown:

1. From the Credit given, in all Ages, to false
Revelations 15, 16
2. From the Fact, thai the wisest Philosophers
of Antiquity thought a Divine Revelation
probable, and also expected one . . 16
IV. Necessity of such Revelation proved:

1. From the Inability of mere human Reason to
attain to any certain Knowledge of the Will
ofGod 16-19
2. From the utter Want of Authority which attended
the purest Precepts of the ancient
Philosophers 19,20
3 From the actual State of Religion and Morals
among the modern Heathen Nations . . 21, 22
Refutation of the Objection, that Philosophy and
right Reason are sufficient to instruct Men in
their Duty 22-26
VI. Possible Means of affording a Divine Revelation . 86, 27
Chapter II. On the Genuineness and Authenticity
• if the Old and New Testaments
Kfct\\\”^n I. On tl^e Genuine/less and Authenticity of
Kie Old Testament. …… 28
I. The Hebrew Scriptures, why termed the Old Tesr.
ient ib.
II Grcit Importance ef the Question, whether the
Books contained in the Old Testament are genuine
or spurious?—Genuineness and Authenticity
defined ib.
III. Genuineness of the Canon of the Old Testament . 28, 29
1. External Proofs of the Genuineness and
Authenticity of the Canonical Books of the
Old Testament 29
(1.) The Manner in which these Books have
been transmitted to us . . . . ib.
(2.) The Paucity of Books extant, when they
were written ib.
(3.) The Testimony of the Jews . . . ib.
(4.) A particular Tribe was set apart to preserve
these Writings …. ib.
(5.) Quotations of them by ancient Jews . 29,30
(6.) The Evidence of ancient Versions . . 31
2. Internal Evidence:—
(1.) The Language, Style, and Manner of
Writing i\\\’6.
(2.) The minute Circumstantiality of Time,
Persons, Places, &c. mentioned in tho
Old Testament 31,32
IV. Genuineness and Authenticity of the Pentateuch, in
particular, proved :

1. From the Language itself …. 32
2. From the Nature of the Mosaic Laws . ib.
:t. From the united Historical Testimony ofJews
and Gentiles 32-35
4. From the Contents of the Pentateuch . . 35, 36
V. Particular Objections to the Authenticity of the
Pentateuch, considered and refuted . . 36-38
*ection II. On the Genuineness and Authenticity
of the JVe~.o Testament.
I. General Title of the New Testament . . . 38, 39
II. Account of its Canon 39
III. Genuineness of the Books of the New Testament 39, 40
IV. Their Authenticity proved from,
1 The Impossibility of Forgery …

tian Testimonies in their Favour and also
by ancient Versions of them in different
Languages 40-48
3. Internal Evidence :

(1.) The Character of the Writers . . . 48
(2.) The Language ami Style of the New
\\\\\\\'< lament 48,49
(3.) The minute Circumstantiality of the Narralives,
together with the Coincidence
of the Accounts there delivered, with
the History of those Times . . 49-52
Section III. On the Uncorrupted Preservation of
the Books of the Old and New Testaments.
I. The Uncorrupted Preservation of the Old Testament
proved from the absolute Impossibility of
its being falsified or corrupted :

1. By Jews 52, 53
2. By Christians . …. 53
.). From the Agreement of all the ancient Paraphrases
and Versions extant … ib
4. From the Agreement of all the Manuscripts
extant 54
II. The Uncorrupted Preservation of the Books of the
New Testament proved from,
1. Their Contents . …. ib
2. The Impossibility of an Universal Corruption
of them being accomplished … 54, 55
\\\’\\\’,. The Agreement of all the Manuscripts extant 55
4. The Agreement of ancient Versions, and of
the Quotations from the New Testament in
the Writings of the early Christians . . 55 56
III. General Proofs that no Canonical Books of Scripture
either are or ever were lost … 56
IV. Particular Proofs as to the Integrity of the Old Testament
…. …. 56, 57
V. Particular Proofs as to the New Testament . 57. 58
Chapter III. On the Credibility of the Old and New
Testaments.
Sf.ctiox I. Direct Evidences of the Credibility of the
Old and Neiv Testaments.
Their Credibility shown,
I. From the Writers having a perfect Knowledge ol
the Subjects they relate . . 59, 60
II. From the moral Certainty of Falsehood be:
»•
tected, if there had been any . . • 60
This proved at large,
1. With respect to the Old Testament 60-62
•.\\\’. With respect to the New Testament 62-66
III. From the Subsistence, to this very Day, of i
Ordinances or Monuments, instituted to pe
ate the Memory of the principal Facts and E
recorded in the Scriptures …. 66, 67
IV. From the Establishment and Propagation of C .
tianily 67, 68
Section II. Testimonies to the Credibility of the L
and JVVw Testaments from Natural and Ci
History.
§ 1. Testimonies from Natural and Civil History b
the Credibility of the Old Testament 78
$ 2. Testimonies of Profane Writers to the Credibility
of the New Testament … \\\”
V 3. Collateral Testimonies to the Truth of the Facts
recorded in the Scriptures, from ancient
Coins, Medals, and Marbles …
Chapter IV. All i/ie Books of ilie Old and New Testaments
are of Divine Authority, and their Authors
are divinely inspired.
Sectiox I. Preliminary Observations.
I. Inspiration defined 92
II. Its Reasonableness and Necessity . *6.
III. Impossibility of the Scriptures being a Contrivance
of Man … ib

Section II. The Miracles related in the Old and
J\\\\\\\”e~w Testaments are Proofs that the Scriptures
mere given by Inspiration of God.
I. A Miracle defined
II. Nature of the Evidence arising from Miracles
III. Design of Miracles
IV. Credibility of Miracles vindicated and proved
V. That the Credibility of Miracles does not decrease
with the Lapse of Years
VI. Criteria of Miracles
VII. Application of these Criteria,
1. To the Miracles wrought by Moses and Joshua
2. To those of Jesus Christ and his Apostles .
VI11. Examination of some of the principal Miracles recorded
in the New Testament .
IX. Particularly of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ
1. Christ\\\’s Prophetic Declarations concerning his
Death and Resurrection . . . .
2. Evidence of Adversaries of the Christian
Name and Faith to the Reality of this Fact
3. The Character of the Witnesses .
4. The Miracles wrought by these Witnesses .
Concluding Observations on the Resurrection of
Christ
X. General Summary of the Argument furnished by
Miracles
XI. A Comparison of the Scripture Miracles and pretended
Pagan and Popish Miracles
i kction III. On Prophecy.
I. Prophecy defined
II. Difference between the pretended Predictions of
Heathen Oracles and the Prophecies contained
in the Scriptures
III. Use and Intent of Prophecy
[V. Chain of Prophecy, and Classification of Scripture
Prophecies
Class I. Prophecies relating to the Jewish Nation
in particular
Class II. Prophecies relating to the Nations or
Empires that were neighbouring to the Jews
Class III. Prophecies directly announcing the
Messiah ; their Number, Variety, and minute
Circumstantiality
Class IV. Prophecies delivered by Jesus Christ
and his Apostles
The five Causes assigned by Mr. Gibbon for
the Diffusion of Christianity shown to be
inapplicable
Objections from the alleged Non-universality
of the Christian Religion refuted
Predictions of the Apostles relative to the Corruptions
of Christianity and the Spread of
Infidelity
Objections taken from the alleged Darkness
and Uncertainty of Prophecy shown to be
unfounded
Chapter V. Internal Evidences of the Inspiration
of the Scriptures.
Section I. The System of Doctrine and the Moral
Precepts -which are delivered in the Scriptures, are
so excellent and so perfectly holy, that the Persons
who published them to the World must have derived
them from a purer and more exalted Source
than their ow?i Meditations.
§ 1. A Concise View of the Religion of the Patriarchal
Times
$ 2. A Summary View of the Doctrines and Precepts
of the Mosaic Dispensation .
$ 3. A Summary View of the Doctrines and Precepts
of the Gospel Dispensation .
$ 4. On the Objections of Unbelievers to the Doctrine
and Morality of the Bible
Section II. The Harmony and Connection subsisting
bet-ween all the Parts of Scripture, are a further
Proof of its Jtuthority and Divine Original .
Section III. The Preservation of the Scriptures is
a Proof of their Truth and Divine Origin .
Section IV. The Tendency of the Scriptures to promote
the present and eternal Happiiiess of Mankind,
constitutes another unaiis-werable Proof of
their Divine Inspiration …..
I. Appeals of Christian Apologists and Testimonies of
Heathen Adversaries to the Effects of the Gospel
upon the first Christians
II. Beneficial Effects of Christianity upon Society in
general
III. On the Political Slate of the World
IV. On Literature and the Fine Arts . . 172, 17S
V. Historical Facts further attesting the Benefits conferred
by the Gospel upon the World . . 173-175
VI. Effects produced by Christianity in private Life,
compared with those produced by Infidelity . 175-177
Section V. The Advantages possessed by the Christian
lieligion over all other Religions, a demonstrative
Evidence of its divine Origin and Authority 177
Peculiar Advantages of Christianity over all other
Religions, in
I. Its Perfection 177
II. Its Openness 177, 178
III. Its Adaptation to the State and Capacities of all
Men 178
IV. The Spirituality of its Worship …. ib
V. Its Opposition to the Spirit of the World . . 179
VI. Its Humiliation of Man, and Exalting of the Deity ib.
VII. Its Restoration of Order to the World . ib.
VIII. Its Tendency to eradicate all evil Passions from the
Heart . . ib.
IX. Its Contrariety to the Covetousness and Ambition
of Mankind ib
X. Its restoring the Divine Image to Man . . . ib.
XI. Its mighty Effects ib
Section VI. friability to ans-wer all Objections, no
just Cause for rejecting the Scriptures.—Unbelievers
in Divine Revelation, more credulous than
Christians 180-183
Chapter VI. Recapitulation of the Evidences for the
Truth and Divine Authority of the Scriptures.—
Moral Qualifications for the Study of the Sacred
Writings.
Recapitulation 183-186
The Scriptures a perfect Rule of Faith and Morals.

Moral Qualifications for the Study of the Scriptures,
and in what Order they may be read to the greatest
Advantage 186,187
PART I.
ON SCRIPTURE-CRITICISM.
Chapter 1. On the Original Languages of Scrip\\\’
ture.
Section I. On the Hebre-w Language.
Introductory Remarks on the Oriental or Shemitish
Languages 188, 189
I. Origin of the Hebrew Language …. 182
II. Historical Sketch of the Hebrew Language . . 190
III. Antiquity of the Hebrew Characters . . . ib.
IV. Antiquity of the Hebrew Vowel-Points . . . 191,192
Section II. On the Greek Language.
I. Similarity of the Greek Language of the Nevw Testament
with that of the Alexandrian or Septuagint
Greek Version …. . 193
II. The New Testament, why written in Greek . 193, 194
III. Examination of the Style of the New Testament . 194-196
IV. Its Dialects 196
Hebraisms …. 196-198
Rabbinisms 198
Aramaeisms, or Syriasms and Chaldaisms ib.
Latinisms ib.
Persisms and Cilicisms …. 199
Section III. Of the Cognate or Kindred Languages.
I. Aramaean with its two Dialects: 1. The Chaldee;
2. The Syriac 199
II. The Arabic, with its Derivative, the Ethiopic . tA
III. Use and Importance of the Cognate Languages to
Sacred Criticism ib
Chapter II. Critical History of the Text of the Holy
Scriptures.
Section I. History and Condition of the Text of the
Old Testament.
§ 1. History of the Hebre-w Text.
I. From the Writing of the Books of the Old Testament
until the time of Jesus Christ . . . 20C
1. History of the Pentateuch …. ib.
2. Ancient History of the remaining B<-oks of
the Old Testament tb.
II. From the time of Jesus Christ to the age of the
Masorites jfi.
1. History of the Text in the first century . . 16
2. From the second to the fifth century . 201
3. Particularly in the time of Jerome

III From the age of the Masorites to the Invention of
the Art of Printing 201
1. Origin of the Masora.—Its Object and Critical
Value 201,202
2. Oriental and Occidental Readings . 202
3. Recensions of Aaron ben Asher and Jacob
ben Naphtali . …. 203
•1. Standard Copiei of the Hebrew Scriptures in
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries . . ib.
IV. From the Invention of the Art of Printing to our
own time ib.
\\\\ 2. History and Condition of the Samaritan Pentateuch.
I. Origin of the Samaritans . . . 203
II. Account of the Samaritan Pentateuch . ib.
III. Variations of the Samaritan Pentateuch from the
Hebrew 204
IV. Versions of the Samaritan Pentateuch . . . ib.
SlCTIOH II. History and Condition of the Text of
the New Testament.
Account of the different Families, Recensions, or Editions
of Manuscripts of the New Testament . . 204,205
I. The System of Recensions of Bengel . . . 205
II. Of Griesbach 205, 206
III. Of Michaelis 20C
IV. Of Mattluci ib.
V. Of Nolan 206-208
VI. Of Hug 208, 209
VII. Of Eichhorn … … 209
VIII. Of Scholz 209-212
IX. On the Foedus cum Grajcis, or Coincidence between
many Greek Manuscripts and the Latin Version 212
Section III. On the Divisions and Marks of Distinction
occurring in Manuscripts and printed
Editions of the Scriptures.
§ 1. On the Divisions and Marks of Distinction
occurring in the Old Testament.
I. Different Appellations given to the Scriptures
II. General Divisions of the Canonical Books, particularly
of the Old Testament
1. The Law
2. The Prophets … . .
3. The Cetubim or Hagiographa
III. Modern Divisions of the Books of the Old Testament.—
Chapters and Verses ….
§ 2. On the Divisions and Marks of Distinction
occurring in the New Testament.
I. Ancient Divisions of Tit>.o. and K;?*>.»ix
Ammonian, Eusebian, and Euthalian Sections.

Modern Division of Chapters ….
II. Account of the Ancient and Modern Punctuation
of the New Testament
Ancient Et.jc:, and Modern Verses
III. Of the Titles to each Book •
IV. Subscriptions to the different Books
Chapter III. On the Criticism of the Text of Scripture.
Necessity of the Criticism of the Text
Section I. On the Hebrew Manuscripts of the Old
Testament.
I. Different Classes of Hebrew Manuscripts
II. The Rolled Manuscripts of the Synagogue .
HI. The Square Manuscripts used by the Jews in private
life 217
IV. Age of Hebrew Manuscripts j\\\’6.
V. Of the Order in which the Sacred Books are arranged
in Manuscripts 217, 218
VI. Modern Families or Recensions of Hebrew Manuscripts
218
VII. Notice of the most ancient Manuscripts . . 218, 219
VIII. Brief Notice of the Manuscripts of the Indian Jews 219-221
IX. Manuscripts of the Samaritan Pcntaceuch . . 221
Section II. On the Manuscripts of the Greek Scriptures.
§ 1. General Observations on Greek Manuscripts.
I. On what Materials written … . 221
II. Form of Letters . ib.
III. Abbreviations … … ib.
IV. Codices Palimpsesti or Rescripti . . . 222
i 2. .Account of Greek Manuscripts containing the
Old and New Testaments.
1. The Alexandrian Manuscript . . . 222-224
II. The Vatican Manuscript 224

§ 3. Account of Manuscripts {entire or in part) containing
the Septnagint or Greek Version of the
Old Testament.
I. The Codex Cottonianus
If. III. The Codices Sarravianus and ColbertinuB
l\\\\ The Codex Coesareus
V. The Codex Arnbrosianus
VI. The Codex Coislinianus
VII. The Codex Basil io-Valicanus
VIII. The Codex Turicensis
226,227
227
227,228
223
if>
ib
229
§ 4. Account of the principal Manuscripts containing
the New Testament, entire or in part, which
have been used in Critical Editions of the New
Testament.
i. Manuscripts writien in Uncial or Capital Letters . 229-238
ii. Manuscript! containing the New Testament or the
Four Gospels, written in cursive or ordinary Greek
characters, which have been collated and cited
by editors of the Greek Testament (and especially
by Wetstein and Griesbach), who preceded Dr.
Scholz, by whom their notation has been retained,
with the exception of Numbers 12. 87. 98. 100.
107. Ill, 112. 122. and 172 … . 238-25*
iii. Manuscripts containing the New Testament and
the Gospels, which, for the first time, were collated
by Dr. Scholz 250-256
iv. Evangelisleria (or Lessons from the Gospels appointed
to be read in Divine Service), which
have been collated by editors of the Greek Testament
(especially by Wetstein and Griesbach),
who preceded Dr. Scholz, by whom their notation
has been retained 256, 257
v. Evangelisleria, first collated by Dr. Scholz, for his
critical edition of the New Testament . . 257- 26C
§ 5. Account of Manuscripts, containing the Acts of
the Apostles and the Catholic Epistles , which, with
the exception of the Manuscript noted by the letter
H., and of those numbered 56 and 58, have been collated
ana cited by editors of the Greek Testament,
who preceded Dr. Scholz, by whom their notation has
been retained.
i. Manuscripts written in Uncial or Capital Letters 260,261*
ii. Manuscripts written in cursive or ordinary Greek
Characters 261*—264*
iii. Manuscripts first collated by Dr. Scholz, for his critical
edition of the New Testament . . 265*—268\\\’
§ 6. Manuscripts containing the Epistles of St. Paul.
i. Manuscripts written in Uncial or Capital Letters,
collated by Editors who preceded Dr. Scholz . 268
ii. Manuscripts written in small Greek Letters 268*—271
iii. Manuscripts, which for the first time were collated
by Dr. Scholz 271* 273«
§ 7. Manuscripts containing the Apocalypse or Revelation
of Saint John.
i. Manuscripts written in Uncial or Capital Letters,
collated by Editors who preceded Dr. Scholz . 273«
ii. Manuscripts written in cursive or ordinary Greek
Characters 273*—275*
iii. Manuscripts collated for the first time by Dr.
Scholz 275*—276*
§ 8. ManutcripU containing Lectionaries, or Lessons
from the Acts and Epistles.
i. Manuscripts cited by preceding Editors of the New
Testament 276*
ii. Manuscripts collated for the first time by Dr. Scholz 276,* 277«
§ 9. Notices of Manuscripts, which have hitherto been
only slightly or not at all examined. ,
I. The Codex San-Gallensis …. 277,* 278*
Ii. The Codices Manners-Suttoniani . . . 278*
III. The Codices Burneiani 278*
IV. The Codices Butleiiani 278,* 261
V. Other Manuscripts existing in various Libraries .
Section III. On the Ancient Versions of the Scriptures.
§ 1 . On the Targums or Chaldee Paraphrases of the
Old Testament.
Origin of the Targums
I. Targum of Onkelos
II. Targum of the Pseudo-Jonathan .
III. The Jerusalem Targum
IV. The Targum of Jonathan Ben Uzziel .
V. The Targum of the Hagiographa
VI. The Targum on the Megilloth ….
VII. VIII. IX. Three Targums on the Book of Esther
X. A Targum on tne Books of Chronicles .
XI. Real value of the different Targums
% 2. On the Ancient Greek Versions of the Old Testament.
I. The Septuagint
1. History of it
2. A critical Account of its Execution
3. What manuscripts were used by its Authors .
4. Account of the Biblical Labours of Origen .
5. Notice of the Recensions or Editions of Eusebius
and Pamphilius, of Lucian and Hesychius
…••••
6. Importance of the Septuagint Version in the
Criticism and interpretation of the New
Testament
II. Account of other Greek Versions of the Old Testa
ment
1. Versions of Aquila ….
2. Version of Theodotion . .
3. Version of Symmachus ….
4. 5, 6. Anonymous Versions
HI. References in Ancient Manuscripts to other Versions.
§ 3. On the Ancient Oriental Versions of the Old and
New Testaments.
I. Syriac Versions
1. Peschito, or Literal Version .
2. Philoxenian Version
3. Karkaphensian Version .
4. Syro-Estrangeloand Palaestino-Syriac Version
II. Egyptian Versions ……
Coptic and Sahidic Versions .
Ammonian and Basmuric Versions
III. Ethiopic Version
IV. Arabic Versions
V. Armenian Version
VI. Persian Versions
PACE
263
263, 264
264
264, 265
265, 266
266
267, 268
§ 4. On the Ancient Western Versions of the Scriptures.
I. Ancient Latin Versions of the Scriptures
1. Old Italic or Ante-Hieronymian Version
2. Biblical Labours and Latin Version of Jerome
3. Vulgate Versions and its Revisions
4. Critical Value of the Latin Vulgate Version
II. The Gothic Version
III. Sclavonic Version
V. Anglo-Saxon Version
Section IV. On the Authority of Ancient Versions
of the Scripture, considered as a Source of the
Text of the Old and New Testaments
Section V. On the Quotations from the New Testament
in the Works of the Fathers of the Church
and other Ecclesiastical Writers
Section VI. On the Various Readings occurring
in the Old and New Testament,
(j 1. On the Causes of Various Readings.
I. The Christian Faith not affected by what are called
Various Readings ……
II. Nature of Various Readings.—Difference between
them and mere Errata
III. Notice of the principal Collations and Collections
of Various Readings
IV. Causes of Various Readings ….
1. The Negligence or Mistakes of Transcribers
2. Errors or Imperfections in the Manuscript
copied …….
3. Critical Conjecture
4. Wilful Corruptions of a Manuscript from Party
Motives
$ 2. Sources whence the True Readings are to be determined.
I. Manuscripts
II. The most ancient and the best Editions
III. Ancient Versions
IV. The Writings of Josephus for the Old Testament
V. Parallel Passages
VI. Quotations from the Old and New Testaments in
the Works of the Fathers ….
VII. The Fragments of Heretical Writings .
VIII. Critical Conjecture
§ 3. General Rules for Judging of Various Readings in
the Old and New Testaments
Chapter IV. On the Quotations

§ 3. Scholiasts and Ghsographers :—
I. Nature of Scholia
II. And of Glossaries
III. Rules for consulting them to advantage in the
Interpretation of the Scripture!
§ 4. On the Testimony of Foreigners who have acquired
a Language :—
I. Importance of this Testimony . . . .
II. Rules for applying it to the interpretation of the
Scriptures
Section II. Indirect Testimonies for ascertaining
the Usus Loquendi.
$ 1. Of the Context:— ….
I. The Context defined and illustrated .
II. Rules for ascertaining the Context
$ 2. Of the Subject-Matter
§ 3. Of the Scope
I. The Scope defined.—Importance of investigate
the Scope of a Book or Passage of Scripture
II. Rules for investigating it .
§ 4. Analogy of Languages ….
I. Analogy of Languages defined.—Its different
Kinds
II. Use of Grammatical Analogy
III. Analogy of Kindred Languages .
IV. Hints for consulting this Analogy in the Inter
pretation of Scripture
V. Foundation of Analogy in all Languages
§ 5. Of the Analogy of Faith
I. Analogy of Faith defined and illustrated
II. Its Importance in studying the Sacred Writings
III. Rules for investigating the Analogy of Faith
§ 6. On the Assistance to be derivedfrom Jewish Writ
ings in the Interpretation of the Scriptures
:

I. The Apocryphal Books of the Old Testament
II. The Talmud
1. The Misna
2. The Gemara or Commentary
3. Jerusalem and Babylonish Talmuds .
III. The Writings of Philo and Josephus
1. Account of Philo ….
2. Account of Josephus
§ 7. On the Assistance to be derived from the Writings
of the Greek Fathers in the interpretation of the
Scriptures
§ 8. On Historical Circumstances :—
I. Order of the Different Books of Scripture
II. Their Titles
III. Their Authors
IV. Their Dates
V. The Place where written .
VI. Occasion on which they were written
VII. Ancient Sacred and Profane History
VIII. Chronology
IX. Biblical Antiquities, including
1. The Political and Ecclesiastical State of the
Jews and other Nations mentioned in the
Scriptures
2. Coins, Medals, and other ancient Remains
Cautions in the Investigation of Biblical
Antiquities
3. Geography
4. Genealogy
5. Natural History
6. Philosophical Sects and Learning
§ 9. On Commentaries :—
I. Different Classes of f \\\”mmentators
II. Nature of Scholia
III. Commentaries
IV. Modern Versions and Paraphrases
V. Homilies
VI. Collections of Observations on Holy Writ .
VII. The Utility and Advantage of Commentaries
VIII. Design to be kept in View when consulting them
IX. Rules for consulting Commentators to the best
Advantage

BOOK II
ON THE SPECIAL INTERPRETATION OF SCRIPTURE.
Chapter I. On the Interpretation of the Figurative
Language of Scripture ….. 3^5
Section I. General Observations on the Interpretation
of Tropes and Figures 355-358

Section II. On the Interpretation of the Metmy*
mies occurring in the Scriptures.
Nature of a Metonymy …. 356
I. Metonymy of the Cause 359, 360
II. Metonymy of the Effect 360
III. Met .ii yrny of the Subject ib.
IV. Metonymy of the Adjunct, in which the Adjunct
is put for the Subject 360, 361
Section III. On the Interpretation of Scripture
Metaphors.
Nature of a Metaphor.—Sources of Scripture Metaphors
361
I. The Works of Nature 361, 362
1. Anthropopathy 362
2. Prosopopoeia …… 362, 363
II. The Occupations, Customs, and Arts of Life . 363
III. Sacred Topics, or Religion and Things connected
with it ib.
IV. Sacred History ib.
Section IV. On the Interpretation of Scripture
Allegories.
The Allegory defined.—Different Species of Allegory 364
Rules for the Interpretation of Scripture Allegories . 364-366
Section V. On the Interpretation of Scripture
Parables.
I. Nature of a Parable 366
II. Antiquity of this Mode of Instruction . . ib.
III. Rules for the Interpretation of Parables . . 366-368
IV. Parables, why used by Jesus Christ . . . 368, 369
V. Remarks on the distinguishing Excellencies of
Christ\\\’s Parables, compared with the most celebrated
Fables of Antiquity …. 369, 370
Section VI. On Scripture Proverbs.
I. Nature of Proverbs.—Prevalence of this Mode of
Instruction . . . 370, 371
II. Different Kinds of Proverbs . . 371
III. The Proverbs occurring in the New Testament,
how to be interpreted to.
Section VII. Concluding Observations on the Figurative
Language of Scripture.
I. Synecdoche 371,372
II. Irony 372
III. Hyperbole to.
IV. Paronomasia ib.
Chapter II. On the Interpretation of the Poetical
Parts of Scripture.
I. A large Portion of the Old Testament proved to be
Poetical.—Cultivation of Poetry by the Hebrews
II. The Sententious Parallelism, the Grand Characteristic
of Hebrew Poetry.—Its Origin and Varieties
1. Parallel Lines gradational ….
2. Parallel Lines antithetic ….
3. Parallel Lines constructive ….
4. Parallel Lines introverted ….
III. The Poetical Dialect not confined to the Old Testament.—
Reasons for expecting to find it in the
New Testament
Proofs of the Existence of the Poetical Dialect
there:

! From simple and Direct Quotations of single
Passages from the Poetical Parts of the Old
Testament 377
2. From Quotations of different Passages combined
into one connected whole . . t\\\’6.
3. From Quotations mingled with original matter 378
IV. Original Parallelisms occurring in the New Testament:

1. Parallel Couplets …. t\\\’6.
2. Parallel Triplets …. t\\\’6.
3. Quatrains . . …. t\\\’6.
4. 5. Stanzas of Five and Six Lines . . 378, 379
6. Stanzas of more than Six Parallel Lines . 379
V. Other Examples of the Poetical Parallelism in the
New Testament :

1. Parallel Lines gradational …. t6.
2. The Epanodos …. 379, 380
VI. Different Kinds of Hebrew Poetry:—
1. Prophetic Poetry …. 380
2. Elegiac Poetry . . • ib.
3. Didactic Poetry . . ib.
4. Lyric Poetry – • 3S1
5. The Idyl . . • ib.
6. Dramatic Poetry . … ib,
7. Acrostic or Alphabetical Poetry . ib.
VII. General Observations for better understanding the
Poetical Compositions of the Sacred Poets . 381, 383

Chapter 111. On the Spiritual Interpretation of
the Scriptures.
Section I. General Observations on the Spiritual
Interpretation of the Scriptures
Section II. Canonsfor the Spiritual Interpretation
of Scripture …••••
Section III. On the Interpretation of Types.
I. Nature of a Type
II. Different Species of Types :

1. Legal Types
2. Prophetical Types
3. Historical Types
III. Rules for the Interpretation of Types .
IV. Remarks on the Interpretation of Symbols .
Chapter IV. On the Interpretation of the Scripture
Prophecies.
Section I. General Rulesfor ascertaining the Sense
of the Prophetic Writings ….
Section II. Observations on the Accomplishment of
Prophecy in general …..
Section III. Observations on the Accomplishment of
Prophecies Concerning the Messiah in particular
Chapter V. On the Doctrinal Interpretation of
Scripture …••••
Chapter VI. Moral Interpretation of Scripture.
Section I. On the Interpretation of the Moral Parts
of Scripture …….
Section II. On the Interpretation of the Promises
and Threatenings of Scripture . .
Chapter VII. On the Interpretation, and Means of
harmonizing Passages of Scripture which are alleged
to be contradictory.
Section I. Seeming Contradictions in Historical
Passages.
§ I. Seeming Contradictions in the different Circumstances
related 400-402
382, 383
383-385
385
ib.
ib.
3S5, 3S6
386, 387
387
388-390
390, 391
391, 392
393-395
395-398
398, 399
§ 2. Apparent Contradictions from things lieing related
in a different Order by the Sacred Writers
§ 3. Apparent Contradictions, arising from Differences
in Numbers ……..
§ 4. Apparent Contradictions in the relation of Events
in one Passage, and References to them in another .
Section II. Apparent Contradictions in Chronology
Section III. Apparent Contradictions between Prophecies
and their Fulfilment
Section IV. Apparent Contradictions in Doctrine.
§ 1. Seeming Contradictions from a M ode of speaking,
which, to our apprehension, is not -oifficiently clear
§ 2. Apparent Contradictions from llie same Terms
being used in different and even contradictory Senses
§ 3. Apparent Contradictions, in Points of Doctrine,
arising from the different Designs of the Sacred
Writers
§ 4. Apparent Contradictions arising from the different
Ages in which the Sacred Writers lived, and the different
Degrees of Knowledge which they possessed
Section V. Seeming Contradictions to Morality .
Section VI. Apparent Contradictions between the
Sacred Writers ……
Section VII. Seeming Inconsistencies between Sacred
and Profane Writers ….
Section VIII. Alleged Contradictions to Philosophy
and the Nature of Things ….
Chapter VIII. On the Inferential and Practical
Reading of Scripture.
Section
I. Gene
II. Observations for ascertaining the Sources of Internal
Inferences
III. Observations for ascertaining the Sources of External
Inferences
Section II. On the Practical Reading of Scripture
Bibliographical Index :

Index of Manuscripts described in Volume I. Part I. ,
Index of Additional Manuscripts .
I. On the Inferential Reading of the Bible.
Jial Rules for the Deduction of Inferences