An Introduction To The Reading And Study Of The Holy Scripture PDF

This is a helpful Bible Aid by William Carpenter (1836) PDF.

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CONTENTS.
PART I-BIBLICAL LITERATURE.
Cuu. I.-PROGRESS OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE.
Lri\”1 of Biblical Learning in the Fifteenth Century.-Impetus given to Sacred Literature in the Last
Caitmy-Philological and illustrative Writers-Present State of Biblical Learning-Character of Works on
Billic.t hterpretation-Advuitagee derivable from Biblical Studies-Diriaiona of Biblical Learning-01!ject
ad Plan of the Present Work 1
CaAr. 11.-BIBLICAL CRITICISM.
s.rno,. t.-Tbe Helinnr uid Greek Scripturee.-The Original Languagee of Scripture-The Aranuean Lan~
Languge in which :Matthew\’s Gospel and the Epistle to the Hebrews were written-Peculiar Style of
die New Teetament-Tbe Genuineness of the New Testament Demonatrable from its Styl-Importanoe of
H._ and Greek Leaming to an Interpreter of Scripture-Hmorical Acconnt of the Hebrew L~
v.-. Schools of Hebrew Philology 4
iimcrwJl t.-Criticiam. of the Hebrew Teit.–Purity of the Sacred Text-Criticism of the Old Testament
Scriptures-Laboun of the Jewish Literati on the Original Tm-Early Printed Editiona-Intuence of the
8-mtan Pmtateuch on the Hebrew Text-Critical Editiona of Atbil8, Jablonaki, Van;der Hooght, Michaelis,
BOllbigant. Kl!llllicott, and De Rossi-Value of an Acquaintance with the Literary Hmory of the Text-
~ Exmaplara of the Hebrew Ten 1 t
Sa::no,. 3.-Early Veraiona of the Old Testament.-The Samaritan Pentateuch-The Septuagint-Greek
Tra…Jat;ons of Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus-Laboars of Orlgen on the Greek Text-Value of the
Seprnagint to m lntmpreter-Relationabip between the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Septuagint-Early Rerisiou
of the Hebrew Teit-The Value of Various Readings 16
Sscncn 4..-The Greek Testament.~Ca-of Error in the Text of the Greek Testament-Early Editions of
I» Text-Critical Labours of Erssmua, · l\\fill, Bengel, W etstein, Griesbach, and otbers–1\\fodem Critical
l!llilicms oL the Greek Testament !5
Su-no!\’I 5.-Various Readings.-Accidents to which Literary Works are liabl-The Scriptttl\’l\’S not secured
..-.i the.-The Source, Number, and Value of Various Readingw-Prescribed Rules for Correcting the Text
•ber• it is faulty-The Process adopted by Griesbacb-Recensions of the Greek Text-Concluding Remarks
• V llriou Readings !!>
~ 6.-Tbe English Bible.-Early Engliab Versions-The Authorised Version-Rules adopted by tbt>
TniDslatora-Critical Value of the Authorised Version-Imperfections in this Version S!>
. hcno!r 7 .-Diriaions ud A.rrangmnent of the Scripturea.-Ancient and Modem Distributions of the Biblfral
Boob-Original Form of the Text-Chaptera and Verses-Punctuation-Advantsgee and Disadvantageli of
die ..,_i Diriaiona in the Sacred Tm 45
CHAP. III.-BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION.
• Sa:nOl\’I 1.-Difficulties connected with the Interpretation of the Bible.~es of Biblical DiJliculties.
AdTillllllgel derivable from ui Acquaintance with the Principles of Interpretation-Commentaries on the Bible-
U11s arili:ng from an early and implicit Use of them-Suggestions for studying the Scriptures 46
Sa:no>1 !.-History of Biblical lnterpretstion.-Primitive Hebrew Interpreters…:.. Vicious Modes of lnterpreacioa-
Early Christian Interpreters-Allegorical and Scholastic Systems of Interpretation-Revival of
lleblical 1..-rning-Henneneutical Writers 53
Stnto,. 3.-Moral Qualities requisite in an lnterpreter.-The State of Mind required in a Student of the
BiWe ~ Gratitude for the Fact and Character of Divine Revelstion ; Humility ; Devout Prayer ; Ingenuousness
m Dttisioo of Purpose 57
Sm°\”\’ ~.-Literary Qualifications of an Interpreter.-The Hebrew and Greek LanguagM-Grsinmars and
LeDcaa…-Rbetoric and Logic-Historical Facts: their intimate Connexion with the Art of InterpretationCi•
il and Political Geography-Natural History-Literary and Historical Circumstances pertaining to the
s.cred Boob 63
s..:no,. 5.-Geoeral Rules of Biblical Interpretation.-Nature ud Object of Interpretation-Usual Methods
ti~ the Science of Interpretation-Proposed Method of discuaaing it he,_ Verbal Language-Difficallia
of interpreting Written Language-Requisites in Literary Composition
~ 6.–0f tbe Signification of Words.-Direct Testimony to the Signification of Woro-Exampl-
LIN 1ar mtnpretiog Words-The Literal and Metaphorical Senses-Historical Circumstances ; their V aloe
11 the lnt«pretatioo of Scripture
Sticnm< 7.-Scripture Paralleli111118.-Value of Parallel Piuisagee, as a Source of direct Testimony to the
Sipriit¥tioa 0 ( Words-Verbal Parallelimu1-Real ParalleU.UU.-Rulee for comparing Parallel Pusages–Th~
Rinbmical Para11e1ism-V arioua Descriptions of this Fonn of ComJ109ition-Assistance to be derived from it
, J,, Art of Jnterpref:ation-Common R_eft>rences another Souree of Testimony to the Signification of \\\\\’ ords

S£CT10N 8.-Subaidiary Means of DUcoveriDg the Sigoiicati<lll of Words.-Direct 1\’eatimooy t.o the Signifi·
cation of W orda not always available or eatiafactory-Subaidiary Mean1-Scope of the W riter-CODtest of the
Pusage–Analogy of Scripture-Emphuia; Means f9r Detecting EmpUsia 86
SBCT101< 9.-Interpretation of Tropical Language.-All Worda originally used in a Proper ~The Tropical
Sense of Word&-Meana of detecting Tropical Expreuiona-Rulea for interpreting Tropee-Examplea 96
SEC.\”TJ01< 10.-Poetry of the Sacred Writinga.-Various Theories of Hebrew Rhythm end Venitication-The
Lyric and the Epic Poetry of the Hebrew…..Objeot of the Art of Poetry-The BJaythmical Parallelism-1\’be·
Musical Accents-Sources of the Poetic I~ employed by the Sacred Writen; Natural Objecta; Common
Life; Sacred Topics; Biblical History 101
SECrtoN 11.-lnterpmation of Symbolical Langnege.-The Natnre of Symbolical Langnege-Erroneoua
Notions entertained in reference to Symbolicnl Langnage-Origin and progreesive Improvement of Writing
·Picture Writing-Symbols-The Langnege of Signs-Rules for the Interpretation end Application of Symbols t 16
. · SEC.\”TJON 1!.-Typee and Secondary Sensea.-The Doctrine of Typee-Fanciful Interpretationa-Definition of
·a Type-Rules for interpreting Types-The Secondary and Spiritual Sense of Scripture, 1111ctioned by Christ
\’and bis Apostl-lta Extent-Analogical and Moral Application of Scripture 1!.\”J
PART 11.-0F THE BIBLICAL BOOKS.
CHAP. 1.-T.HE PENTATEUCH.
Sections of the Law and the Prophett
CuAP.11.-THE HISTORICAL BOOKS.
Chronological Lista of the Kings of Israel and Judah
Cau. IJI.-THE POETICAL BOOKS.
Chronology of the Psalms
CHAP. lV.-THE PROPHETICAL BOOKS
Cuu. V.-THE APOCRYPHA •
CuAP. Vl.-THE GOSPEl.8.
Chronological Analysis of the Gospels
Cau. VII.-THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES
CHAP. VIII.-THE EPISTLES OF PAUL
CHAP. IX.-THE CATHOLIC EPISTLES
Cuu. X.-THE BOOK OF REVELATION
PART 111.-BIBLICAL THEOLOGY.
Cu4P. 1.-THE MEDIA OF DIVINE REVELATION.
IM
172
198
200
227
239
Divine Revelation originally vouch11fed to Individuala-Cea11tion of Peraonal Revelations-The Bible the only
Medium of Revelation-Inspiration of the Scriptaree-Varioua Tbeoriea of Inspiration-The Author\’• Theory
of Inspiration-D i8crepencies in •the Gospels Proo fa against their Plenary Inspiration, but Atteetationa of their
Genuineness and General Authanticity-Clwacter and Claims of the Bible
Cn . ..r.11.-THE OBJECT OF DIVINE REVELATION.
The Necessity for a Divine Revelation Stated-The great Objecta of Revelation-The Harmony eubeiating
amongat the various Portions of Revelation-The Law I~troductory and Preparatory of the Goepel-Divine
Revelation Gradually developed-I ta Congeniality with the Nature and Destiniea of Man
CHAP. III.-,THE EVIDENCES OF DIVINE REVELATION.
SzcnoN 1.-Tbe Accumulated end Concurrent Evidence of Revelation
SzcnoN i.-The Genuineneaa of the Biblical Boob • •
SECTION S.-Extemal Evidences of the Genuin911e1a of the Biblioal Books
Szcnor< 4.-Intemal Evidences of the Genuinen- of the Biblical Boob
SEC.\”TJor< 5.-The Authenticity of the Biblical Boob demonatrated
13t
143
t!J2
188
!51
ts.a.
SECTION 6.-The Integrity of the Biblical Text !69
SEC.\”TJoN.7.-The Divine:Autbority of the Biblical Boob • 270
CHAP. IV.-SACRED INSTITUTIONS\’.
SECTION t.-The Church, Patriarchal, Jewiab. and Chriatian.-Memhen of the Church-The Patriarchal
Church-The Jewish Church-1\\lembera of the Jewiah Church-Corrupt Judaiam-Jewiah Sedte-The Christian
Church-Its Constitution-I ta Plurality-The Equality of ita Memben-Its Submiaaion to Divine Authority 279
Su;noN !.-Spiritual Duties-Divine Worahip-Prayer-Tbanbgiving-Singiiig 288

~ S.-C-u.l OMernne..-Tbe Jftrilh Jtitaal-Objecta and u- of the Ceremonial UiwChriltiu
~— Feeti….U: The Sabbath; the PU80Yer; the Feast of Pentecost; the Feast of Taber-
\’ …_; the F-i of the New. l\\loon; the F..i of Trumpets; the Fut of Expiation; the Sabbatical Year;
theJ~ ~ • • • • t88
isno!C 4.-s.cnd Pl.eee.-The Land of Canaan-The Tabernacle-The Temples of Solomon, Zerubbabel,
.a Bad-TM S~, Lite. • .\’ 303
5-;ns 5.-:&l.iJUailn oC the Jewilh Sanctnary.-The High-priest-The 1111perior Oticen of the Temple- 1»..-.,. Pn.ta-Tbe Lnitea-The Nethinim 1111d Statiooary Mm • • 315
S-6.-Sacriicea and Oblationa.-The Origin of Saerifices-The Victims to be oft\’ered-The several
mil (ff 06rinp : Barnt.ol\”eringa ; Sin4erings ; T~gii ; Pemce-of\’eringa ; Firstliogw and Tithes
-The n..iign •d u-of s.crm-Meat-oll\’eringii-Drink-olf\’eringll-The Obligation to present Sacrificeen.
Typal Cbancter of s.criic:ee 3!i
P .ART IV.-BIBLICAL HISTORY.
CHAP. 1.-HISTORICAL MEMOIRS.
Tbe Bible the Highest Source of Historical Knowledge-Character of the Secred Historians-The Eventa
Slftded in Scripture, with their Collataral E•idence-Biblical History a Clue to all other History-Fidelity of
Ssnaioo-PGetratioo of the Sacred Writers • • • • • • • • SM
CRAP.11.-NOTATIONS OF TIME.
Diri…._ of Time : Daya ; W eeb ; Mouths; Y ean-The Computation of Time–Oeoeral ChronologyCWoaoiorical
Tablee: Hebrew Cyolea; the moat Remarkable .Eru; Empires, Statea, and Sovereign• con·
~ with Secred Hiatory; Sacred and Prof\’ule History ; The Aamonean and ldumll!aD Princes ~
CeAP. 111~-HISTORICAL MEMORANDA.
Sll:\’TIOll J.-Forms of Government.-Patriarchal-Democratical-The Hebrew Commonwealth-Tributary
c..idi&ioa of the Hebrews-Maintenance of I.heir Kings 38!
~ ~.-Juri.prudBDCe, and Fonu of Legal Procedure.-Perfection of the Jewiah La-Courts of Judi~
and Legal Proceeding: Tribunals; Judicial Procedure; the Sacred Lot; Judicial U18g81 of the Romana
-The Criminal Law of the Hebrews-The Ciril Law-Modee of Punialunent, 1111d the Treatment of Prisoners 384
A H_,-oC the Moeaic Law • 398
Sr=o,. 3..-.Military AJl\”ain.-The whole Hebrew Nation liable to be called to Arma-Ezemptiou from MiJi.
iary Serrice-&rmgtb of the Hebrew Anniea-Military Ollicera-Order of Battle and of Encampmeut-Treat-
… al Ememiee DiTiaion of the Spoil-Arms-Chariota-Qualificatioue of a W arrior-Retum of a Conquering
!nny-a–1 oC the Victors , ·• 401
=\’a\’1\’10:< 4.-Tnl>ute and Mouey.-Under M-After ~e Captivity-The Publicans 407
CaAP. IV.-HISTORICAL AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
SlntOW t.-Tbe Holy Land.-Namea-Situation and Limits-Inbabitants-Diruions-FaceoftheCountry:
Ri-. ; Moumaine ; V alleya; Plains ; Deeerta-Atmoaphere and other Phenomena : Climate ; Raina ; Winds;
TGl!lldoes, &c.-Frnitfulneaa of the Country 409
S1CJ10!< f.-Coantries beyond Judea, mentioned in Scripture.-Asu : Arabia; Armenia; Auyria; Asia
]lia ; CWda; .Media ; l\’tlesopotmnia; Parthia ; Persia ; Ph<!lnicia ; Syria.-E11aors : Greece ; Illyricuni ;
hlly; lflCellonia; Spain-lelanda : Crete; Claudia; Melita; Samotbrace; Sicily .-ABICA: Egypt; Ethiopia;
Lilifa 4!6
s.nao. 3.-Proviocee, Cities, md Towns, mentioned in Scripture, Blphabetically aminged 457
P.ART V.-BIBLICAL NATURAL HISTORY.
CHAP. 1.-ASTROGRAPHY AND METEOROLOGY.
~y.–scmitineu o( Biblical Information-Knowledge of Astronomy poneAed by the ancient
Bl\’lft.r1-Mtrology.-Meteorology-lta Objects-The Seuone of the Hebrews 530
CnAP. 11.-GEOLOOY.
l.portance o( the Science, in its relation to the Bible-MOS!Uc Narrative of the Creation-Conformity of lf.._ Philomophy with the Hebrew Cosmogony-The Deluge attested by Modem Discoveries-The Age of
\”F.lnh-Scripture Geological Terms 53~
CHAP. Ill.-BOTANY.
Scif.atific Arnngements in the Scriptures-Herbaceous Productions-Com; its Uses and Preparationf~
o( Palestine-Sacred Groves ·• 53.i
CeAP. IV.-ZOOGRAPHY.
Scriptm-. ~ of. MOll!lll and Solomon-Clean and Unclean Beasts-Structure and Functiona of l\\lan
-hilalt iobabdiog Paleetm-Seripture Noticet1 of Birds-Birds inhabiting Palestine-Ichthyology of the
,.._Reptii.-InaecU · .\’>

r Stat.e of the Arta amongat the Antediluri11D8-Under Moeee, and in the lat.er perioda of the Hebrew Ccm·
monwealth 541
SECTION 1.-Writinga and Boob,-Origin of Writing-Materiala and Forma of Boob-llluatntiona of
Scripture Pbrueology-Epiatolary Lett.era 548
SP.CT10N ! .-Engraving, Sculpture, and Painting.-Eerly Origin of Engraving-Sign.ta, and their U–
Sculpture and Painting 551
SP.CT10N S.-Architecture.-T enta-Villagee-HouaM-Furniture-Ship1 55!
SECTION 4.-MUllic.-Antiquity of the Art-Civil and SacJ\’l!(l MUllic-Inatrumenta of Muaic mmtioned in
the Bible-Varioua kinda of the Harp, &c.-Tbe Lerit.ea 558
Stx:noN 5.-Medicine and Chirurgery.-Phyaiciana amongst the Hebrewa-Modea of Treating the Sick-
Diaeuee mentioned in Scripture 560
SECTION 6.-Agriculture.-Importance and Value of Agriculture-1\\IOll&ic Regulations for pursuing itEatimation
in which it wu held-Means used to increue Fertility-Implementl used for Cultivating the SoilAnimala
uaedinAgriculture-Preparationofthe Land, and Sowing of Grain-The HarYeat-Threahing and Pre-
. paring of Com-Vinea and Vineyards-The Vintage-Various Descriptioua of Gardena-The Fallow or
Sabbatical Year 567
CHAP. II.-PHIJ,.OSOPHY AND PRACTICAL SCIENCE.
Errors relative to the Learning of the Hebrewa-Teechers of Religion-Philosophy of the Hebrewa-Wiae
Men, or Teachers-Stat.e of the Sciences among the Hebrewa • 571!
SECTION 1.-Arithmetic, Mathematica, and Astrology • 573
SECnoN 1.-Geography.-Limited Extent of Geographlcal Knowledge among the Hebrewa-C011Dological
Notions of the Hebrews 574
CHAP. 111.-SOCIAL CUSTOMS.
SECT101< 1.-Clothing and Personal Omaments.-Mat.eriala used for Clothing-Coloured Clotba-Varioua
Parts of the Oriental Drees: the Upper Garment; Head-dress; Tunic; Girdlea; Shirta; Veils-Painting of
the Ey-Treatment of the Hair and Beard-Phylacteriea-Noee-ringa and Eerringa-Braceleta, &c. 575
SECTION 1.-Jewiah Marriages, and Treatment of Children.-Marriagea: Eapouaala-Purchaaing the BrideMarriagea
contracted at an Eerly Age-Marriage Ceremoniea-Public Proceaaions-Nuptial EntertainmentaThe
Parable of the Ten Virgina Illustrated-Polygamy-Divorce-The Support of Widows-Laws Relative to
Marriage-Treatment of Children ; Birth; Circumcision; Religious Instruction ; Tradea; The First-born ;
Adoptiou .;so
S11enoN S.-Modea of Travelling.-Travelling Provisions-Hospitality shown to Travellera-Eutem Caravans-
Illustration of the Exodus-Preparations for the Joumeyinga of Eastern Monarchs 586
Sr.cnoN 4.-Funereal Ritea.-Jewiah Notion of Death-Embalming-Public Mourning-Cofliu, or Biera-
Funeral Entertainmenta-Jewiah Cemet.eries-Jewiah Notions of a Future Stat.e • 589
SP.CT10N 5,-Domestic Economy and Repaata.-Bread-Win-Milk-Butter-Butter-milk, &c.-Meala and
Repaata of the Jews-Manner of Eating-Posture at Table-Portion sent to the Absent-Grace at Meals 593
S1JCT10N 6-Social Int.ercourae.-Forma of Politen818; Salutations; Proatrations; Presents made to Superiors-
Manner of conducting Visits-Maro of H~our-Presentation of Raiment-Marks of Diagrac-Cutting
the Beard~lapping the Hands and Hiasing-Refuaing the Rites ofSepulture-Diain~ent of the Deed 595
Sr.cnoN 7.-Commerce.-Eerly Commerc-Caravan.-Commerce of the Phreniciana-Arsbian MerchantaCommerce
of the Hebrewa-Exchmge or Barter-l\\loney-M8111U1\’88 of Capacity and Length mentioned in
Scripture-Hebrew Weights 598
CHAP. IV.-CUSTOMS FOREIGN TO THE HEBRE~S.
Sr.cnoN 1.-Tbe Theatre and the Drama.-Theatrical Exhlbitiona not adopted by the Hebrew9-Scriptare
Allusions to the Drama-Allusions to Combats in the Amphitheatre • • • • • • 60t
SECTJoN i.-Tbe Grecian Gamea.-Various Exercises in the Olympic Gamee-The Candidates-Prepantory
Di!!Ciplin-Introduction into the Stadium-The Foot-race-Boxing-Manner of Contending-Rewards of the
\\\’ictora-Reoord of the Victors-AllUlliona to theae Gamea in the New Teatament 604
l)tt\”noN S.-Philoaophical Secta.-The Stoica and the Epicureans 609